Ferdinand Pauwels - Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople inthe fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas inand Martin Luther 's Protestant Reformation in Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.
The importance assigned to famine relief increased in the late imperial era, when a diverse array of local elites worked in tandem with officials to manage and fund relief operations.
The Qing state — devoted an extraordinary amount of resources to famine relief, particularly during its 18th-century heyday.
Beginning in the 19th century, however, the beleaguered late-Qing state increasingly lost the capacity to prevent droughts and floods from resulting in major famines. But Chinese modernizers largely rejected Confucian interpretations of famine in favor of the claim that modern science and technology would provide the best defense against disasters.
By the s, both the Chinese Nationalists and their Communist rivals called on people to sacrifice for the nation even during famine times. The horrors of the Great Leap Famine of — forced Chinese Communist Party leaders to make changes that ultimately paved the way for the rural reforms of the s.
The Chinese state was acutely aware of the risks posed by crop failure, and the relief measures it enacted meant that during prosperous periods floods and droughts did not necessarily result in high mortality rates. In times of dynastic decline, on the other hand, even relatively minor disasters could give rise to grave starvation, and major droughts and floods resulted in catastrophic famines such as those of the s or the s.
As famine conditions worsened, dead bodies piled up along the roads and were consumed by dogs and birds. In addition to the threat that large numbers of roving people posed to order and security, the depletion of the labor force in a famine area dimmed the prospect for any kind of harvest, making refugees less likely to return and extending the duration of the crisis.
To avoid such scenarios, the Imperial Chinese state sought first to prevent droughts or floods from giving rise to famine conditions, and if that failed, to provide relief that could stabilize grain prices and prevent people from taking to the roads. Chinese tradition differentiated between natural calamities tianzai and famines jihuang or dajiand asserted that harvest failures brought about by a natural disaster need not result in full-blown famine as long as benevolent rulers intervened.
Disasters such as floods and droughts were viewed as warning signs that a dynasty had displeased Heaven and was in danger of losing its mandate if it did not change course. If after being frightened he still fails to recognize the cause of his fear, only then do misfortunes and calamities overtake him.
State-run ever-normal granaries that helped to balance harvest fluctuations were first established in the Jin dynasty — ceand continued to serve as a crucial famine-prevention mechanism in later dynasties. The officials who managed these granaries aimed to keep grain prices stable by purchasing grain soon after the harvest, when prices were low, and reselling it at a low price during the lean period before a the next harvest.
Zhu Xi, who distrusted state activism, promoted community and charity granaries that were managed by local elites and financed by private contributions, but he also supported the reduction of taxes during times of dearth and the use of public works projects to provide famine refugees with employment.
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Local gazetteers began reserving space for the biographies of charitable men, many of whom earned praise for the good deeds they performed during famines. Overall, the late imperial state proved adept at institutionalizing nonbureaucratic forms of famine relief.
For example, when flooding, drought, and skyrocketing grain prices led to severe famine conditions in Zhejiang inprefectural officials in Shaoxing distributed rice and money to the poor and sought to control grain prices by selling and stockpiling grain.
At the same time, they called on wealthy households to donate and distribute grain, and commissioned local elites to organize soup kitchens that reportedly saved 19, lives. Local benefactors also established an infirmary for the sick and a bureau to care for abandoned infants.
When famine conditions did ensue, officials tried to restore agricultural production and avert social unrest by investigating affected areas to classify households according to their degree of disaster.
They worked with local elites to open soup kitchens and shelters, and most crucially, distributed large allotments of grain from massive state-run granaries to the affected population free of charge. Ritual responses to drought practiced by Qing officials included prohibiting the slaughter of animals, instituting community-wide fasts, praying at temples, exposing themselves in the hot sun, using their own blood to write rain prayers, or even threatening or committing suicide to demonstrate their willingness to suffer for the people.
Qing officials across the political spectrum generally agreed that the state should intervene to stabilize the price of grain during a severe crisis. The Mughal Empire had limited financial and bureaucratic resources to implement large-scale subsistence policies, while the Ottoman state implemented policies to transport and distribute food supplies to urban areas and the military but did not invest in storing the massive amounts of grain necessary to provision rural producers.
In northwestern Europe, states generally relied on commercial exchange to supply needed grain imports, rather than establishing public grain reserves. The 18th century was an era of expansion, most crucially the conquest and administrative incorporation of Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet in the midth century, but also the incorporation of two significant islands, Taiwan and Hainan, and more direct rule of the southwestern borderlands in Yunnan and Guizhou.
High-Qing expansion provided new resources as well as less densely populated areas for Han Chinese to settle. Between andfor instance, roughly 17, acres of land in Xinjiang were registered as agricultural land and farmed by Chinese troops.Born into the aristocratic family of the Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of plombier-nemours.comill's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician; and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome.
Robber Barons or Industrial Statesmen? Essay Sample. Late nineteenth century industrial leaders have been called “industrial statesmen” for the great economic power they helped America become. Ancient Egyptian Imperialism is an excellent text for students and scholars of history, comparative history, and ancient history, as well for those interested in .
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history.   Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding. the leaders (or warlords) of the professional, military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy, from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.
Cicero was a model Roman statesmen and intellectual admired by humanists. In the book, Bruni. GENERAL GEORGE PATTON’S MURDER on 21 December is one of the most concealed events in military history. Although Patton’s military file at the National Archives in St Louis has over pages of documents, only a handful of pages are devoted to the car crash.
Strangely, the 5 on-the-scene.
In this essay, I will outline the main moral and intellectual considerations informing the resistance or anti-imperialist camp’s (known as mumanaists in Arabic) prioritization of confronting imperialism over other forms of domination. Japan - Acknowledgments Japan. and the desire of the Diet to interpret the "will of the emperor" versus the oligarchy's position that the cabinet and administration should "transcend" all conflicting political forces. The main leverage the Diet had was in its approval or disapproval of the budget, and it successfully wielded its authority. year-old Jack Harris (above) fought and died at Gallipoli. The family's vicar, Everard la Touche, wanted Jack to go to war. The vicar believed the war was a battle of good versus evil.