Ina Wintu woman, Kate Luckie, lamented the attitudes of white settlers toward the earth: The white people dig long deep tunnels.
The completion of the transcontinental railroad in vastly increased the pace of urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural development. The state's population exploded fromin to almost 3. Pulled by dreams of economic success as promised by state boostersthese migrants found both opportunity and hardship in modernizing California.
New Wave of Chinese Immigration One of the many difficulties involved in completing the transcontinental railroad was the problem of finding laborers willing to take on the dangerous, back-breaking work. Inthe Central Pacific Railroad turned to Chinese workers, who soon comprised two-thirds of the railroad's labor force.
Most of the approximately 10, Chinese railroad laborers came directly from China, joining thousands of their countrymen already in California from the Gold Rush era. Many Chinese immigrants viewed California as a temporary stopover where they hoped to earn enough money to return to their hometowns wealthy and successful.
A song from San Francisco's Chinatown expressed this desire: Soon I will see my parents' brows beaming with joy. An economic downturn during the s heightened job competition and encouraged anti-Chinese xenophobia.
So-called "anti-coolie clubs" formed throughout the state to denounce Chinese immigration. White mobs attacked Chinese communities up and down California, climaxing in an all-out assault on San Francisco's Chinatown in The largely Irish Workingmen's Party, organized in San Francisco by Denis Kearney, blamed the Chinese for unemployment, low wages, and poor working conditions.
California politicians buckled to this mounting pressure and helped pass a federal ban on Chinese immigration inthe first such law in US history.
They struggled to maintain dignity and financial stability in the face of racist boycotts, discriminatory hiring practices, and threats of mob violence. Booming Agriculture, Migrant Labor California's booming agricultural economy created an endless need for farm labor.
Although family farming was typical in the Midwest, California agriculture was dominated by large-scale industrial farming, and huge numbers of migratory workers were hired and fired each year. A succession of ethnic groups provided this labor, beginning with Native Americans in the s and s, followed by Chinese, Japanese, Hindustanis, Filipinos, and Mexicans.
Excluded from the American Federation of Labor AFL due to their race and "unskilled" status, agricultural workers suffered the worst conditions of any labor sector in California. They commonly worked hour days in the merciless sun for extremely low wages while living in unsanitary temporary camps.
In1, Japanese and Mexican sugar beet harvesters in Oxnard staged California's first recorded agricultural strike. It lasted two months and won the workers a pay hike, but the new union dissolved after the AFL refused to recognize it.
Though dubbed California's "peculiar institution" for its similarities to southern slavery, exploitative migratory farm labor remained widespread throughout the 20th century. Hispanic Americans The Mexican immigrants who increasingly dominated agricultural labor in California after took on the brutal work because farm jobs were often the only ones available to them.
Dislocations caused by the Mexican Revolution propelled many Mexicans northward, but once in California these immigrants encountered rampant discrimination. Middle- and upper-class Mexican men and women could often only find work as day laborers, farm workers, and maids.
Mexican Californians tended to live in segregated enclaves where constant in-migration invigorated Mexican culture, traditions, and language. In urban barrios and rural colonias. Mexican Californians blended old and new practices just as they made use of both Spanish and English, forging entirely new identities as Mexican Americans.
The reality of their severe economic circumstances flew in the face of the popular celebration of California's Spanish past that flourished in the early 20th century. Even as Californians romanticized their state's 19th-century Mexican heritage, most turned a blind eye to the day-to-day problems faced by Mexican Californians in the present.
Native Californians California Indians found themselves in a similarly dispiriting position — celebrated in the popular imagination while their ongoing plight remained generally ignored. The Native Californian population reached its nadir in at less than 20, the low point of a horrifying demographic decline due to disease, malnourishment, and violence.
Less than half lived on reservations — most found work in California cities or in migratory agriculture. Reformers such as Helen Hunt Jackson struggled to raise public awareness of Indian poverty and to dispel myths of the permanently "vanishing Indian.
A native man named Ishi — believed to be the last survivor of his group, the Yahi — allowed University of California anthropologists to study and interview him during the s.
Ishi's obvious resiliency and intelligence challenged popular racist stereotypes. The early 20th century also saw Native Californians employing the legal system to fight for land rights, educational opportunities, and citizenship rights.
Inthe California Supreme Court awarded Native Californians the right to vote, paving the way for the Indian Citizenship Act granting full citizenship. After the low point ofCalifornia's Indian population slowly began to increase as native communities adapted old ways to new circumstances.
Some black entrepreneurs — including several notable women — managed to find financial success through hard work and good fortune.The construction of canals and roads led to the increase in the use of stagecoaches, steamboats, and ultimately railroads. Railroads became extremely popular in America in the ’s.
The railroad industry itself began to boom; it was supported by its reputation for speed and efficiency. (3) Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) conducts research in the area of safety. Bur of Transportation Statistics (BTS) is the America’s primary repository of data on all aspects of mobility, and in cooperation with the US Census Bureau, BTS is conducts a Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) every five years.
Description: APA; Literature & Language; This essay discusses the origin of the slave trade and its development in the American colonies. The origin of the slave trade in Africa started with the Portuguese at the start of the sixteenth century.
Chinese Workers and the First Transcontinental Railroad of the United States of America. Ann Arbor, New York: St. John’s University, Ann Arbor, New York: St. John’s University, Yep, Laurence. > America: A Narrative History (Brief 10th) – Ch. 17 – America: A Narrative History (Brief 10th) – Ch.
17 – Jane Addams is best associated with: Hull-House. Need essay sample on America: A Narrative History (Brief 10th) the use of prison labor by railroad companies.
The invention of electric motors did all of the following. Courtesy of the Bruce C. Cooper Collection. Also see the data on the number of miles of railroad track laid in the US from -