In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five major perspectives that have guided modern psychological research. Why do you act the way you do?
Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology. An approach is a perspective i. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions.
You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong. Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior.
For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior. Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Behaviorist Perspective If your layperson's idea of psychology has always been about people in laboratories wearing white coats and watching hapless rats try to negotiate mazes in order to get to their dinner, then you are probably thinking about behavioral psychology.
Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy.
Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units.
Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language.
There must be biological factors involved.
Psychodynamic Perspective Who hasn't heard of Sigmund Freud? So many expressions of our daily life come from Freud's theories of psychoanalysis - subconscious, denial, repression and anal personality to name only a few.
Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life.
Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind: He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: The 'id' and the 'superego' are constantly in conflict with each other, and the 'ego' tries to resolve the discord.
If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use defense mechanisms to reduce our anxiety.
Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts. An aspect of psychoanalysis is Freud's theory of psychosexual development. It shows how early experiences affect adult personality. Stimulation of different areas of the body is important as the child progresses through the important developmental stages.
Too much or too little can have bad consequences later. The most important stage is the phallic stage where the focus of the libido is on the genitals. During this stage little boys experience the 'Oedipus complex,' and little girls experience the 'Electra complex. However, it has been criticized in the way that it over emphasizes the importance of sexuality and under emphasized of the role of social relationships.§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, High School, Beginning with School Year The provisions of §§ of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with .
For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches (sometimes called perspectives) in psychology. Compare and Contrast Contemporary Perspectives About Transformational and Transactional Leadership Words | 13 Pages.
pertaining to these leadership types is necessary to fully comprehend what they mean and how they are reflected by leader behaviour. Aug 26, · The purpose of this essay is to identify the differences between traditional leadership and contemporary leadership. For a clear understanding first it will review the literature of traditional leadership models.
Wisdom, or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight. Wisdom is associated with attributes such as compassion, experiential self-knowledge, non-attachment and virtues such as ethics and benevolence.
Wisdom has been defined in many different ways, a variety of . Compare and Contrast Contemporary Perspectives About Transformational and Transactional Leadership Words Apr 7th, 13 Pages According .