The temple is generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric orderthe simplest of the three Classical Greek architectural orders. The Parthenon, Athens, Greece. Top Questions What is the purpose of the Parthenon? All experts agree that early on the Parthenon was used as a treasury.
A Greek temple typically served as the home of a deity statue, before which ceremonies were conducted by priests. Like most cultures throughout history, however, the general population of ancient Greece did not congregate inside temples for religious services. Throughout the Archaic period, these materials were superseded by stone, of which the supreme type was marble.
Lesser varieties of stone were often enhanced with a veneer of marble dust. Ruins of Etruscan cities see examples are scant, however, as the Etruscans like the Aegeans built mainly with wood and clay, which deteriorates swiftly.
The Etruscans made early advances in arched construction, which were absorbed by the Romans. The earliest Greek temple design was essentially a rectangular building with a portico covered porch with columns fitted to the entrance. This plan was based on the Mycenaean megaron see Aegean Architecture.
Eventually, in order to achieve symmetrical design, a second portico was added to the opposite end of the building; this was merely a decorative porch a "false portico" as it lacked an entrance.
H,2,6,13 As illustrated above, the roof of a Greek temple has a shallow slope. This results in a low, wide triangular gable at the top of each portico.
Each gable is called a pediment. The standard Greek temple design emerged via embellishment of the megaron plan.
Most crucially, the eaves were extended and supported with a line of columns all the way around the building.
A line of columns, known as a colonnadeusually supports the roof of a building or covered walkway. In the latter case, the term "colonnade" is sometimes extended to mean the entire structure.
Likewise, the term arcade may denote a series of arches, or a walkway with a roof supported by arches. The peripteral design is practical as well as aesthetic.
A peripteral building is inherently surrounded by a covered walkway, thus providing shelter to visitors and passers-by. When a public square is surrounded by peripteral buildings as was typical in ancient Greece and Romethe perimeter of the square is lined with sheltered walkways.
Naturally, architects embellished on the standard temple plan in various ways. For instance, an opulent effect was sometimes achieved by adding a second peristyle around the first; this is known as a double peristyle.
And while most Greek buildings featured only one story, multi-story designs were not uncommon. Circular versions of the temple plan also developed; a circular Greek temple-style building is known as a tholos. With the basic layout established, two distinct styles of Greek temple emerged: The principal site of Classical architecture is the Athens Acropolis, an elevated plateau at the centre of the city, reserved for its most sacred buildings.
The acropolis was a standard feature of Greek city-states. Following the razing of the Acropolis by the Persians during the Persian Wars ca. This temple originally housed an enormous statue of Athena, patron deity of Athens. The entrance to the Acropolis is spanned by a magnificent gateway known as the Propylaea.
This type of structure, essentially a classical temple that lacks front and rear walls, may be termed a classical gateway. The classical gateway experienced a revival across Europe during the Neoclassical period, the most famous example being the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin.
The Ionic order flourished principally in Asia Minor; in mainland Greece, Doric reigned supreme though many Doric buildings, including the Parthenon and Propylaea, borrow Ionic elements.
This temple features an unusual design, with multiple statue chambers and three entrances; each entrance has its own porch, one of which is the famous Porch of the Caryatids.
A "caryatid" is a column sculpted into a female figure; the male equivalent is an "atlantid". The Classical age also witnessed the development of the Corinthian order a derivative of the Ionic order; see Classical Ordersthough it was rarely used prior to the Roman age. Another important form of Greek architecture was venue seating, installed in such places as theatres open-air structures for dramatic performanceodeons smaller, roofed structures for musical performanceand hippodromes horse tracks; see example.
By constructing the stage of a theatre or odeon or track of a hippodrome at the base of a natural incline, wooden or stone benches could be installed in ascending rows upon the incline.
Greek architecture filled many cities throughout these regions some of which exceeded any Greek city-state in sizeincluding Seleucia IraqPergamum TurkeyAntioch Turkeyand Alexandria Egypt.Western sculpture: High Classical period (c.
– bc) The Parthenon sculptures must have been executed by many different hands, but, because the overall design was by Phidias, the composition and details undoubtedly reflect his style and instructions. Located about meters north-west of the famous Acropolis, The Temple of Hephaestus is the best-preserved Greek temple in the world, although it is far less known than its illustrious neighbor.
The temple was built in the 5th century BC in a district which contained many foundries and metalwork shops.
Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire.
In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a . The new style is best expressed in the Parthenon marbles of about BC but there was a preceding style of some importance - the Early Classical, sometimes called the Severe Style, which is exemplified in the sculptures for .
The Parthenon today. The Parthenon, along with the other buildings on the Acropolis, is now one of the most visited archaeological sites in plombier-nemours.com Greek Ministry of Culture, with funding for the Olympic Games in and funding from UNESCO, has inaugurated a massive restoration project, still in .
Following the razing of the Acropolis by the Persians during the Persian Wars (ca. BC), the most celebrated of all Greek structures were erected on this plateau. 6. The most famous building in the Doric order, and indeed the crowning work of all Greek architecture, is the Parthenon.