Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation The most traumatic era in the entire history of Roman Catholicism, some have argued, was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th. This was the time when Protestantismthrough its definitive break with Roman Catholicism, arose to take its place on the Christian map. The spectre of many national churches supplanting a unitary Catholic church became a grim reality during the age of the Reformation.
New religious orders and other groups were founded to effect a religious renewal—e. Later in the century, St. John of the Cross and St. Francis of Sales had a similar influence on the devotional life of the laity.
There was little significant papal reaction to the Protestants or to demands for reform from within the Roman Catholic Church before mid-century. It was he who in convened the Council of Trent. The council, which met intermittently untilresponded emphatically to the issues at hand.
Disciplinary reforms attacked the corruption of the clergy. There was an attempt to regulate the training of candidates for the priesthood; measures were taken against luxurious living on the part of the clergy, the appointment of relatives to church office, and the absence of bishops from their dioceses.
Prescriptions were given about pastoral care and the administration of the sacraments. The Roman Inquisitionan agency established in to combat heresywas more successful in controlling doctrine and practice than similar bodies in those countries where Protestant princes had more power than the Roman Catholic Church.
Political and military involvement directed against Protestant growth is most clearly reflected in the policies of Emperor Charles V and in those of his son Philip IIwho was associated with the Spanish Inquisition.
Various theologians—especially the Jesuit St. Robert Bellarmine —attacked the doctrinal positions of the Protestant reformers, but there was no one to rival the theological and moral engagement evident in the writings of Luther or the eloquence and passion characteristic of the works of John Calvin.
Roman Catholics tended to emphasize the beliefs and devotional subjects that were under direct attack by the Protestants—e. Education was foremost in the minds of many of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation. Capable priests were needed for the education of the faithful, and, thus, seminaries multiplied to prepare the clergy for a more austere life in the service of the church.
The Society of Jesusfounded in by St. Ignatius of Loyolawas not specifically a teaching order but was nevertheless very important in this field. The first Jesuit college was opened in MessinaSicily, in By the Jesuits had colleges, and by —just 18 years before the suppression of the order—the number had risen to The society was not reestablished until Another major emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was an ongoing missionary endeavour in parts of the world that had been colonized by predominantly Roman Catholic countries, such as Spain and Portugal.
The work of such men as St.
Francis Xavier and others in Asia and of missionaries in the New World was rewarded with millions of baptismsif not true conversions.The Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Council of Trent in , and a new order, the Jesuits, founded in Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism.
Tremors - Reformation & Counter-reformation Europe; History & The Arts. Featured content. Free courses. All content.
the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries - Protestant versus Catholic, and Protestant versus Protestant - were extremely hot. Eventually, these fires would spread to the British Isles. An Economic Analysis of the Protestant Reformation Robert B.
Ekelund, Jr. Auburn University and Trinity University It argues that the medieval Roman Catholic Church, through doctrinal manipuladon, the exclusion of rivals, and various forms of price discriminadori, uldmately placed ' We recognize that the Protestant Reformation .
- Reformation In the first half of the sixteenth century Western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church.
This conflict is called the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter-Reformation. It was called the Counter Reformation.
During this time there was also a war going on between the Catholics and Protestants called the Thirty Years War. At the Council of Trent which also happens to be the longest held council in the history of the Catholic Church the Church was taking counter measures against the spreading Protestant Reformation.
The Catholic Reformation, often called the Counter Reformation, was a direct response to the Protestant Reformation. It sought to correct many of the abuses of church practices which had led to.