Selected general articles Photovoltaic array and wind turbines at the Schneebergerhof wind farm in the German state of Rheinland-Pfalz The Energiewende German for energy transition is the planned transition by Germany to a low carbonenvironmentally sound, reliable, and affordable energy supply. The term Energiewende is regularly used in English language publications without being translated a loanword.
Whatever the extent of the population-energy connection, the concern that growing energy use threatens the sustainability of the underlying energy resource base is understandable, but perhaps unwarranted. To address the issue of the effect of population size and growth on energy demand, the fact that the link between population and energy involves two intermediate connecting elements must be recognized.
The first link relates to levels and changes in economic development, approximated by income or gross domestic product GDP per capita. The two terms are used interchangeably throughout this article. Typically, the greater a region's per capita income, the greater its per capita consumption of energy: The average per capita GDP and energy consumption of the world's developing countries are, respectively, only about one-seventh and one-eighth those of industrial areas.
Notwithstanding this marked per capita disparity, given the sheer population size of developing regions—over three-quarters of the world total—the absolute amount of energy consumption and of GDP are relatively large: What is true of prevailing levels in the relationship between per capita income and energy is also true of rates of change over time since as income per capita rises, so does per capita energy use.
The reason is evident. Energy—electricity to run motors, fuels for transport, and hundreds of other applications—is a vital complement to other investments for boosting productivity and stimulating economic growth.
In turn, that very growth gives rise to acquisition of household necessities and creature comforts associated with increased energy usage. Even though income and energy use are conspicuously correlated, the degree of the relationship is by no means perfect and unvarying, which raises the second point to consider in linking population and energy.
Even at comparable levels of per capita GDP, the volume of energy use will differ among countries and regions, depending on structural characteristics of the economy, spatial features, climate, fuel and power prices, government conservation policies, and other factors.
Similarly, changes in per capita income need not signify commensurate rates of energy use; for example, shrinkage of energy-intensive manufacturing and expansion of lower energy-use service activities can contribute to decoupling growth of GDP and energy use. Such de-coupling has manifested itself in a number of advanced countries, and may, in time, manifest itself in the world's poorer countries as they continue to develop.
In the United Statesa plot of energy use per unit of GDP from the third quarter of the nineteenth century and well into the greater part of the twentieth century shows what is basically a bell-shaped curve, in that there was a rise in energy intensity peaking in the s and falling steadily thereafter.
In the first half of this period, greater energy use per unit of GDP was associated with the growth of large-scale manufacturing and energy-associated infrastructure.
As that process of heavy industrialization began to taper off towards the last several decades of the twentieth century, a growing relative role of non-manufacturing activity meant a commensurate slowdown in the growth rate of energy consumption, although continuing, of course, its steady growth in absolute terms.
That slowdown, it should be added, benefited as well from certain non-structural factors, such as energy and economic efficiency improvements in electricity generation and other sectors. Quantifying the Linkage With this background, consider Table 1 as a way of highlighting, for recent years and the projected near term, the complex interrelationships among changes in population, economic development, and energy consumption.
Its aggregated and simplified layout notwithstanding, the table is instructive in identifying the three broad factors that go into the determination of changes in total energy use.
Strictly speaking, the change in energy use is the multiplicative product of the three factors; but, when relatively small numbers are involved, as here, it is effectively the sum of additive items.
The items in this decomposition, expressed in terms of percentage changes, are: Even if population growth had been less than estimated, it is conceivable—though by no means assured—that offsetting economic performance would have accelerated the growth in energy use above that shown in the table.
An important step in this de-composition exercise is to flag the contribution of the changing relationship between energy and GDP, often referred to as changing "energy intensity. The framework employed in Table 1 is easily augmented to indicate the extent to which energy growth compounded or attenuated certain environmental problems.
For example, with respect to the problem of greenhouse warming, a worldwide degree of de-carbonization—through, among other ways, limited substitution of carbon-lean natural gas for carbon-rich coal—which allowed carbon dioxide emissions to rise considerably less than energy consumption, can be demonstrated.
In the future, that process of de-carbonization—aided by gradual introduction of zero-carbon renewable resources—is likely to endure, though not sufficiently to preclude an absolute, and perhaps dangerous, rise in carbon dioxide emissions. Table 1 includes the U. Department of Energy's year "business as usual" projections, showing a doubling in the annual rate of worldwide energy consumption growth, and reflecting—at least over that time span—the credible assumption of ample supply and relatively level prices into the future.Energy and Population Joel Darmstadter one-third of world energy use by gradual introduction of (zero-carbon) renewable resources—is likely to endure, though not sufficiently to preclude an absolute, and perhaps dangerous, rise in carbon dioxide emissions.
The use of renewable and alternative energy sources can save us money, assure that our grandchildren and great grandchildren will have enough energy, and free us from the uncertainties of depending on energy supplies outside the United States. Types of Renewable and Alternative Energy There are several renewable energy sources that .
Essay about Alternate Energy Sources - Alternate Energy Resources As most people know our energy supply is slowly running out. We are using energy sources that either pollute the air, take up natural resources or cause damage to other forms of life.
SIRS Researcher - A reliable resource for research including pro & con issues. eLibrary - Access to a wide collection of periodicals and digital media.
Proquest - Access to all your ProQuest databases, like Research Library, Historical Newspapers, and more. Alternate Energy Resources As most people know our energy supply is slowly running out.
We are using energy sources that either pollute the air, take up natural resources or cause damage to other forms of life.
If this becomes an energy source that we can depend on, you may see it light all of the lights in the world. The downside to this. resource to help in the economic analysis and comparison the resources. The chapter starts with an introduction and background of a historical perspective on energy use and projections of the future ene rgy needs in the U.S., the industrialized countries, and the world.